SHOP / AGRICULTURAL WORKPLACE SAFETY
For more information contact:
Environmental Health and Safety
Departments are to use safeguards to protect employees and students from hazards associated with operating machines. Machine safeguards are generally physical barriers that either enclose or isolate hazards.
When safeguards cannot be used during maintenance, service, and repairs, personnel are to disconnect and control (e.g., lockout) all machine power sources to prevent inadvertent activation (see SPPM 3.68).
Departmental administrators are responsible for ensuring that machines used for work, teaching, and research are equipped and maintained with appropriate safeguards.
Supervisors and faculty are responsible for training employees and students in the proper use of machinery and safeguards in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. This should be a part of the safety orientation (see SPPM 2.16).
Employees and students must properly use machines and safeguards at all times. Safeguards may only be removed during maintenance, service, and repairs when power sources are disconnected and controlled (e.g., locked out). See SPPM 3.68.
Employees and students are not to wear loose clothing, neckties, rings, or other jewelry that could be caught or entangled in moving parts. Employees and students whose hair is long enough to be caught or entangled in moving parts are to wear caps, hair nets, or other protection which confines hair.
Machines are to be inspected before each use in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. This process includes inspecting the operating controls, safety devices and guards, electrical cords, power transmission devices, and points-of-operation for obvious defects.
Additionally, as part of the department’s annual self-inspection, supervisors are to check all machine operations in order to identify hazardous areas or processes. See SPPM 2.50 for self-inspection procedures.
Obtain or design safeguards to completely enclose or prohibit access to hazards. The safeguards are to be securely affixed to the machine or other attachment points. The safeguards are not to create a hazard, e.g., cutting hazard.
Operations to Be Safeguarded
Safeguard the following two types of operations by using physical barriers that either enclose or isolate the hazard(s):
- Points-of-operation: Locations where the material being processed comes into direct contact with the machinery. This is where shaping, boring, forming, drilling, or cutting occurs.
- Power transmission points: Mechanical components that transmit energy and motion from the power source to the points-of-operation. Power transmission points include gears, drive shafts, cams, rods, belts/pulleys, and chain/sprockets.
Examples of points-of-operation and power transmission points are:
Rotating components, e.g., drive-shafts, flywheels, pulleys, sprockets (Fig. 1).
Cutting and shearing action, e.g., saws, shears, augers, grinders (Fig. 2).
In-running nip points, e.g., belts/pulleys, chain/sprockets, rollers, gears (Fig. 3).
Forming and bending action, e.g., press brakes, mechanical power presses.
Machines are to be equipped with the following types of controls:
- The operator must be able to turn off the power to the machine without leaving the point-of-operation.
- Operating controls must be within easy reach of the operator. The operator should not have to reach over a hazard to make adjustments.
- After a power failure the machine must not automatically restart upon restoration of power. The operator must have to activate a reset switch to start the machine.
- Operating treadles are to be guarded against accidental tripping, e.g., a cover.
- Powered feed rolls or other moving parts on feeder attachments are to be guarded.
- Machines should be equipped with energy isolating devices (e.g., circuit breaker, disconnecting switch) designed to accept a lockout device during maintenance, service, or repair activities (see SPPM 3.68).
Machine Guarding Hazards–Reporting and Correction
Report hazards directly to the supervisor or use a Hazard Notification form (see SPPM 2.52).
Do not use a machine designated as unsafe. Usually such machinery is tagged, posted, locked, fenced, or otherwise designated as unfit for use.
Resume operation only after the hazard has been corrected and the machine has been declared safe to use by a supervisor, faculty member, or qualified repair person.
Upon observation or notification of a machine not equipped with proper safeguards, a supervisor or faculty member is to remove the machine from service.
Notify employees and/or students that the machine is not to be operated. Place a warning notification, e.g., tag or sign, on the machine designating it as unsafe and not to be operated. Prevent use by disconnecting and locking out the power source(s) or other effective means, such as installing barriers or physically removing the machine.
Contact Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) regarding machine safety; telephone 509-335-3041.
Drawings are reprinted by permission of the National Safety Council.